Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen
Research and Collections
Universitetsparken 15, 2100 København Ø, 2-335
Reinhardt Møbjerg Kristensen
Professor, dr. scient. hon, ph. d., cand. scient., Zoological Museum and Arctic Station, University of Copenhagen
Full curriculum vitae:
Born December 6 in Brande, Denmark, 1948; Student 1968; B.Sc.1971 (geology-biology), University of Århus; Married to Gerda Jensen in 1972; Nadja born in 1972; Tutor in Invertebrate Zoology and Parasitology 1973-76 (Copenhagen); Tutor in terrestrial ecology in 1976 (Field Course); M.Sc.1976 (zoology) University of Copenhagen; Three year tenure as Scientific leader of Arctic Station, Greenland (l976-79); PhD. 1979 (Cell Biology and Anatomy); David born in 1979; Adjunct and Senior Lecturer in Marine Biology, Arctic Biology and Invertebrate Zoology, University of Copenhagen (1979-82); Smithsonian Postdoctoral Fellow, U.S.A.(1982-83); Assist. Professor of Zoology, University of Copenhagen (1983-88). Zoological Member of the Board of the Danish Arctic Station (1986-2004). Member of MAB-Northern Science Network (1988-94). Assoc. Professor and Full Curator, Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen (1988-96). Member of ZERO- and NEWLAND- steering committee, Danish Polar Centre (1991-95). Member of Scientific Co-ordinating Group for the International Arctic Polynya Program (SCG) (1993-). Head of Invertebrate Zoology Department, Zoological Museum (1992-94). Sabbatical year (1995-96) at Queensland Museum supported by ABRS and SNF funds. Professor of Invertebrate Zoology at Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen (1 Oct 1996-). Chairman of the Board of the Natural History Society of Denmark (1997-2000). Member of the Committee for Greenland Arctic Ocean Shelf Project (GRASP) (1998-2000). Member of The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (2002 -). Director of the Danish Arctic Station (2004-).
Years of awards and special grants:
University of Copenhagen 500 years anniversary; Swedish Universities Award for Arctic and High Mountain Biology Research (1981), Sweden; Smithsonian Institution Award (1983), U.S.A.; Sydney L.Wright Fellowship (1983), Bermuda; National Danish NATO-Fellowship (1983); Fluid Research Grant of Smithsonian Institution (collaboration with R.P. Higgins) Florida, 1984; Research Associate to Smithsonian Institution (1988-91); Visiting Professor of Insbruck University, Austria (1991); ABRS- and SNF-grants; Taxonomy of Australian Meiofauna (1995-96); Visiting Professor of Ulm University (1996); Visiting professor of Kyoto University (2000) ; Carlsberg-foundation grants to make illustrations of Loriciferan and Tardigrada (1997-2004); Special grant from Villum Kann Rasmussen Fonden to built a new DNA-laboratory (collaboration with T. K. Kristensen and A. Jørgensen, 2002-2007); Member of the Zoomorphology group (SNF-grant) and Arctic Biology Team from the Zoological Museum and Institute (1997-2003); Member of "Tree of Life Science Research Project, NSF/AToL-grant", 2003-2006 (main applicant, Gonzalo Giribet, Harvard University); Main applicant for the project "The Ecdysozoa: A combined approach using morphological, molecular and fossil data on a controversial concept in the animal Tree of Life, 2004-2006 (SNF 21-04-0047). Awarded a Laurea ad Honorem Degree in Science (Dr.scient.) in Modena, Italy, the 7 April, 2005. Dronning Margrethes og Prins Henriks Fond and A.M. Møller og Hustru Chastine Mc-Kinney Møllers fond til almene Formaal to publish the book "Arktisk Station 1906 - 2006".Main applicant for a Villum Kann Rasmussen grant to the Galathea 3 expedition. (2006 -2007)
Travels and expeditions:
Sahara (Morocco-Algeria-Tunisia), 1971; East-Turkey (Anatolia, Mt.Ararat), 1969, 1974; Sinai 1972; Greenland 1973, 1976?79, 1981 (American-Danish Expedition), 1982 and 1987 (German-Danish Expedition); Gulf Stream offshore Florida 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1988; Bermuda (marine caves), 1983; Morocco, 1985; Station Biologique de Roscoff, France, 1982, 1985, 1987 and 1989; German "Valdivia" expedition to the Faroe Islands, 1990; Porto Bello Marine Biological Station, New Zealand, 1991; The American Icebreaker "Polar Sea" expedition to North East Water Polynya, Northeast Greenland (NEWP-1992); Rarotonga (Cook Islands), 1991, 1995; Meiofauna collections (82 stations) along the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria (1995-96); Meiofauna collections in the Boggomosses (Mound Springs), Taroom, Queensland, 1996; University of South Pacific, Fiji (1996); The Dead Sea, Israel (1997); The third IKKA?expedition to South Greenland (1997); Meiofauna collections at Disko Island in the homothermal springs during winter condition (April-May 1998); Collections of loriciferans for "Life-cycle studies " at Faroe Bank (September 1998); Namibia?expedition to the hot springs of Rehoboth, Warmquelle and Gross Barmen (October 1998); Collections of marine tardigrades at El Hurghada, Red Sea, Egypt (April 2000); Collections of tardigrades and loriciferans at Faroe Bank (June 2001); Investigations of homothermal springs at Disko Island (August 2001); Collections of meiofauna along the coast of Western Australia and Northern Territory (October-November 2002); Collections of tardigrades for molecular study in Tobago (February- March 2003); Second Namibia expedition to collect marine tardigrades at Lüderitz, Walvis Bay and Swakopmund (August 2003); Collections of terrestrial tardigrades in Chile-Argentina (2004); Collection of marine tardigrades and loriciferans for molecular studies at Station Biologique de Roscoff, France (2004 and 2005). Collection of tardigrades on the Seychellles (Mahé and Praslin Islands). Galathea3 expedition to Solomon Sea and Solomon Islands (Gizo, Bellona and Rennell, 2006-2007).
Leader of postgraduate field courses:
First Scandinavian Course in Arctic Marine Biology, Greenland 1977; First Arctic Meiofauna Workshop, Greenland 1978; Field Course in Marine Biology, Denmark 1980; Course in Terrestrial Arctic Biology, Greenland 1982; Course in Arctic Biology (Institut für Polarökologie, Kiel University), Greenland 1987; Course in Zoomorphology, Sweden 1987; Course in Arctic Biology, Greenland 1988; Arctic Biology Course, Igloolik Polynia, Canada,1989; Arctic Marine Biology Course, Disko, Greenland, 1990; Field Course in Arctic Biology, Arctic Station, Greenland, 1994; PhD-course: University of Modena, two lectures on "Ultrastructure and evolution of invertebrates" (1997). Invited by Prof. R. Bertolani; Danish-German Field Course in Arctic Biology, Arctic Station, Greenland, 1998; PhD-course: Sexual Dimorphism at Rønbjerg Laboratorium, University of Aarhus (25-30 April 1999). Invited by Dr. P. Funch and Prof. F. Vollrath; PhD-course in Meiofauna, Seto Marine Labaratory, Japan (2000). Invited by Prof. Y. Shirayama; PhD-course in Invertebrates, Harvard University, USA (2001). Invited by Prof. G. Giribet; Field Course in Arctic Biology, Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland 2002; Meiofauna course at the Smithsonian Marine Station, Ft. Pierce, Florida and the Keys (2003).Field Course in Arctic Marine Biology, Qeqertarsuaq, 2006.
Teaching and evaluation activities:
Field courses in marine biology, semester courses in Zoomorphology, Arctic Biology and Polar Biology.
Tutor of several Masters and following PhD. students: 1) Hans Ramløv, 1992; 2) Peter Westh, 1993; 3) Ole Frimer, 1994; 4) Jette Eibye-Jacobsen, 1995; 5) Knud Falk, 1995; 6) Peter Funch, 1996; 7) Jørgen Olesen, 1998; 8) Martin V. Sørensen, 2001; 9) Jörg Nickel, 2003;10) Katrine Worsaae; 11) Gunnar Gad.
National evaluation of PhD-degree: Anne Birgitte Klitgaard, 1997 and Ole Sten Møller, 2007.
International evaluation of PhD?degree and Dr. hab.-degree: Rosemary Brown, 1990 (PhD-degree, Sydney); Thomas Bartolomaeus, 1993?94 (Dr.hab., Göttingen); Andreas Schmidt-Rhaesa, 2001-2002 (Dr.hab., Bielefeld); Sandra Claxton (PhD-degree, Sydney). Assessment Committee for "adjungeret" professor position in zoology at the University of Faroe Islands: Dorete Block, 2001.
Assessment Committee for "honoured" professorship in zoology at the University of Hamburg: Hilke Ruhberg, 2003-4.
Evaluations of tenure and promotion to associate and full professor at Harvard University.
Assessment Committee for the position as Associate Professor at the Institute of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, 2004 and the position as lecturer in Invertebrate Palaeontology at Geological Museum, University of Copenhagen, 2005. Assessment Committee for the position as Full Professor in Zoology, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, 2005.
External evaluation and review of the whole scientific staff of Seto Marine Biological Lab., Shirahama-cho, Kyoto University, Japan, 2002.
Editor of Danmarks Fauna (1991?95) and Zoologisher Anzeiger (1994-2005); Symposium Editor of 8th International Symposium on Tardigrada, Copenhagen 30 July-5 August 2000 published in Zoologischer Anzeiger 240 (2001): 213 - 556.; Member of the advisory board for Zoologica Scripta (since 1992); Field editor of Helgoland Marine Research (1999-2006); Member of the Editorial Board of Systematics and Biodiversity (since 2003). Co-editor of the book: Arktisk Station 1906-2006.
International Symposia, Congress etc.:
Fourth International Meiofauna Symposium, Columbia, U.S.A.1980; Third International Symposium on the Tardigrada, Tennessee, U.S.A.1980; Fifth International Meiofauna Symposium, Ghent, Belgium 1983; Systematic Association: The Origins and Relationships of Lower Invertebrates, London 1983; American Society of Zoologists, Denver meeting, 1984-85; Fourth Scandinavian Symposium on Systematic Zoology, Denmark 1985; Fourth International Symposium on Tardigrada, Modena, Italy 1985; International conference on Research in the Arctic, Leningrad 1988; Seventh International Meiofauna Symposium, Vienna, Austria, 1989; DZG? Symposium: Neue höhere Taxa- von ihren Entdeckern vorgestellt, Tübingen, Germany, 1991; Convener of 6th Deep-Sea Biology Symposium, Copenhagen 1991; BIOFAR-Symposium, Faroe Islands, 1991; Sixth International Symposium on Tardigrada, Cambridge, England 1994; U.Z.I.Symposium: Body Cavities: Function and Phylogeny, Varese, Italy, 1994; Benthic NEW-P Workshop, Raleigh, USA, 1995; Convener of NEWP-symposium in Helsingör, Denmark, 1995; Against 2010 : Boggomosses, Taroom, Queensland, 1996; 8th International Symposium on the Biology of the Turbellaria, Brisbane, Australia, 1996; VI Symposium on Cold Hardiness in Animals and Plants, Copenhagen, 1996; Tenth international Congress of Myriapodology, Copenhagen, 1996; Seventh International Symposium on Tardigrada, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1997; 10. Danske Havforskermøde, Nordsøcentret, Hirtshals, January 1998; 2 Nordic Marine Sciences Meeting, Hirtshals 2-3 March 1999; Convener of the 8th International Symposium on Tardigrada, Copenhagen, Denmark, 30 July - 5 August 2000; Leader of Arctic Workshop on Tardigrades, Qeqertarsuaq, Greenland, 7-18 August 2000; XVIIth International Congress of Zoology, Athens, Greece, 28 August - 2 September 2000; Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, Annual Meeting (SICB 2001) Chicago, 3-7 January 2001; Key-note speaker of 21st Century Cladistics Hennig XXI Meeting, Helsinski, 12-15 August, 2002; Key-note speaker of the Symposium "Morphology, Molecules, Evolution and Phylogeny in the Polychaeta and Related Taxa", September 23 - 27, 2002, Osnabrück; The BIOFAR-symposium, Tórshavn, Faroe Island 24. -26. April 2003; First International DIVA Workshop, Wilhelmshaven, 5 - 6 June, 2003; Ninth International Symposium on Tardigrada, St. Pete Beach, Florida, USA, 28 July - 1 August, 2003; First International Workshop on the Biodiversity and Evolution of the Scalidophora (Loricifera, Kinorhyncha, Priapulida), 27 - 30 October, 2003; Annual meeting for NSF-AtoL project: Assembling the tree of life: An integrated approach to the origin and diversification of the protostomes, Harvard University, USA, 17-23 January, 2004; Key-note speaker of Twelfth International Meiofauna Conference (TWIMCO), Ravenna, Italy, July 11 - 16, 2004; Euroscience, Open Forum, Stockholm, Sweden, 23 - 30 August 2004.Key-note speaker of Tenth International Symposium on Tardigrada, Catatania, Italy, 18-23 June 2006.
University of Göttingen, Germany 1980: Arctic Meiofauna; University of Clemson, U.S.A.1982: Phylogeny of Tardigrada; University of Maryland, U.S.A.1983: Radioactive warm springs, Disko Island, Greenland; Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A.1982: Arctic Meiofauna in warm springs; Smithsonian Institution, 1983: Loricifera, a new phylum; University of Stockholm, Sweden 1984: Ultrastructure of Loricifera; University of Hamburg, Germany 1984: Biology of Loricifera; University of Kiel, Germany 1986: The meiofauna on the Greenlandic Ice-cap; Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. 1988: Ultrastructure in Loricifera; University of Göttingen, Germany 1990: New information on the phylum Loricifera; University of Lapland, Finland 1990: Biospheres reserves in Greenland; University of Osnabrück, Germany 1991: Life-cycles of new Loricifera; Zoological Institute, University of Otega, Dunedin, New Zealand 1991: How to describe a new phylum of Animals; University of Hamburg 1993: New types of Aschelminth-like animals. New classes or phyla; Faculty of Biology and Soil Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, Russia 1994: The Biology of the Phylum Loricifera; C-4 Professor Colloquium: The main tenured professorship for Systematic Zoology at the Museum für Naturkunde, Humbolt-University Berlin, Oct. 1994: Loricifera: Phylogenetic implications of the discovery of a new phylum; University of Queensland, Australia 1996: Hunting new Phyla in Australia; University of Hamburg 1997: A "missing link" between Rotifera and Gnathostomulida from a homothermic spring in West Greenland; Danish Polar Center 1998: Arktisk Biologisk Forskermøde VII: Comparision between Ikka springs and homothermic springs at Disko; University of Wien 1998: Neue Konzepte und Ergebnisse in der Meeresbiologie: Recent Discovery of High Taxa in the Marine Environment; University of Osnabrück 2001: Micrognathozoa- a new class; University of Milano 2001: Loricifera, Cycliophora and Micrognathozoa; Arctic Station June 26, 2004: Royal Lecture - Discovery of Micrognathozoa.
Principal Research, 1983-2007:
Member of the Zoomorphology group (SNF-grant) and Arctic Biology Team from the Zoological Museum and Laboratory for Cell Biology and Anatomy. The major body of research was the description and ultrastructural investigations of the new phylum Loricifera (1983). From 1985 to 1987 the heterotardigrade family Echiniscidae was revised, using cladistic methodology as well as SEM- and TEM-techniques. The idea was to provide a better understanding of the phylogeny, biogeography and evolution of terrestric heterotardigrades. During the years (1983-1989) revisionary studies were also carried out on Loricifera, Kinorhyncha and Tardigrada in cooperation with R.P. Higgins (Smithsonian Institution). The largest part of Arctic Biology Research is done in cooperation with my PhD-students. It was mainly based on research concerning cryptobiosis in tardigrades and on research on homothermic springs at Disko Island. In 1994 my PhD-student, Peter Funch and I found a new type of animal (Micrognathozoa) in a cold, homothermic spring at Disko. The animal has gnathostomulid jaws, but a dorsal tegument as a rotiferan. The new discovery throw new light on the phylogenetic position of the phylum Gnathostomulida and the monophylum Gnathifera. My PhD student and now Postdoc Dr.Martin Vinther Sørensen and I have published a monograph about the rotiferans living inside ikait pillars and in the ikait snow from Southwest Greenland. A paper about the rare mineral ikait was publish in Nature together with geologists, botanists and several members from my department. Dr. Peter Funch and I have worked five years with the ultrastructure and life-cycle study of Symbion pandora. The main result is published in Nature (1995): Cycliophora is a new phylum with affinities to Entoprocta and Ectoprocta. Later the molecular data (18S rRNA) was published in Nature (1998) together with Drs. Birgitta Winnepenninxcks and Thierry Backeljau. The 18S ribosomal RNA sequence data indicate a sister?group relationship between Cycliophora and Rotifera?Acanthocephala. The monographic paper of a new group of animal, Micrognathozoa with gnathostomulid or rotiferan jaws from Arctic heterothermic springs was published in 2000 (co?author P. Funch). Finally a molecular investigation into the phylogenetic position of Micrognathozoa using four molecular loci was leaded by G. Giribet in co-operation with W. Sterrer, my former students M. V. Sørensen, P. Funch and me in 2004. New techniques in palaeontology have discovered an ancient meiofauna. Together with Dieter Waloszek and Hans Müller, we announced in 1994: A more than half a billon years old stem-group tardigrade from Siberian limestone. The preservation of the new fossil from Cambrian is very unique, and the ultrastructure of the cuticle, sense organs and claws has been investigated by SEM.
Future Research - Five Year Plan:
2006-2007. The first molecular data of Loricifera. Continuation of descriptions of Atlantic loriciferans from Faroe Bank (BIOFAR) and Roscoff (France), with a description of paedogenesis in a new order of Loricifera. Description of the "ghost" larva (post-larva) of deep?sea loriciferans. Development of a new ultracentrifuge-technique for extractions of live meiofauna from deep sea sediments.
2007-2008. Molecular phylogeny of Tardigrada - the monophyly of Heterotardigrada (co-author A. Jørgensen). Finishing a monograph about the ultrastructure of tardigrade to provide an understanding of the phylogenetic position of the phylum. Investigation of cyclomorphosis in Arctic tardigrades from homothermic springs. Publish a paper about protonephridia of Limnognathia maerski (Micrognathozoa) (co-author N. Møbjerg).
2008-2009. ABRS-study: Taxonomy of Australian Meiofauna with special attention on Tardigrada, Loricifera and Kinorhyncha. A review of the marine tardigrades of Australia. Finishing the chapter Tardigrada (co-author S. Claxton) to "Fauna of Australia". Write the fifth paper about the "Archiannelid-problem" (co-authors D. Eibye-Jacobsen and K. Worsaae).
2009-2010. Finishing a monograph on "Fauna of the radioactive, homothermic springs at Disko Island". Continuation of descriptions of deep-sea loriciferans and tardigrades.
2010-2011: Monograph on all known loriciferans in the world.