The formation of avian montane diversity across barriers and along elevational gradients
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Tropical mountains harbor exceptional concentrations of Earth’s biodiversity. In topographically complex landscapes, montane species typically inhabit multiple mountainous regions, but are absent in intervening lowland environments. Here we report a comparative analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data for population pairs from eighteen Indo-Pacific bird species from the Moluccan islands of Buru and Seram and from across the island of New Guinea. We test how barrier strength and relative elevational distribution predict population differentiation, rates of historical gene flow, and changes in effective population sizes through time. We find population differentiation to be consistently and positively correlated with barrier strength and a species’ altitudinal floor. Additionally, we find that Pleistocene climate oscillations have had a dramatic influence on the demographics of all species but were most pronounced in regions of smaller geographic area. Surprisingly, even the most divergent taxon pairs at the highest elevations experience gene flow across barriers, implying that dispersal between montane regions is important for the formation of montane assemblages.
|Status||Udgivet - 2022|
K.A.J., A.H.R., P.Z.M. and J.D.K. thank all the staff and field assistants that facilitated field-work in Papua New Guinea. Notably, the Binatang Research Center and local communities along the Mount Wilhelm gradient, as well as people from the villages of Kanga, Keglsugl, Towet, Yawan, and Wanang. We are also grateful for the assistance provided by the PNG National Museum and art gallery and the Conservation and Environment Protection Authority (CEPA) of Papua New Guinea for research permits and export permits. Furthermore, we thank the State Ministry of Research and Technology (RISTEK, permits [SURAT IZIN PENELITIAN: 013/SIP/FRP/I/2011 and 026/SIP/FRP/I/2012 to K.A.J.]); the Ministry of Forestry, Republic of Indonesia; the Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (RCB-LIPI); and the Bogor Zoological Museum for providing permits to carry out fieldwork in Indonesia and to export select samples. We acknowledge support from the National Genomics Infrastructure in Stockholm funded by Science for Life Laboratory, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the Swedish Research Council, and SNIC/ Uppsala Multidisciplinary Center for Advanced Computational Science for assistance with massively parallel sequencing and access to the UPPMAX computational infrastructure. J.D.K. was supported by an Individual Fellowship from Marie Sklodowska-Curie actions (MSCA-792534). K.S. acknowledges ERC grant BABE 805189. K.A.J. acknowledges a National Geographic Research and Exploration Grant (8853-10), a Carlsberg Foundation Expedition Grant (CF15-0079), the Dybron Hoffs Foundation and the Corrit Foundation for financial support for fieldwork in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea. K.A.J., A.H.R. and J.M.P. are most grateful for the financial support received from the Villum Foundation (Young Investigator Programme, project no. 15560).
© 2022, The Author(s).
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