Chemical and morphological defenses of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries in response to zooplankton grazing
Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-review
Pseudo-nitzschia species frequently blooms in coastal waters, and some species are able to produce the toxin domoic acid (DA), hereby causing harm to the marine ecosystem and humans. Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of grazing pressure on the morphological and chemical response (in terms of cellular DA production) of Pseudo-nitzschia. Subsequently, zooplankton grazer responses to these defenses were examined. The cellular DA content of P. multiseries ranged from 0.11-0.27 pg cell-1 without grazers, and increased up to 44% with the presence of grazers (Artemia nauplii) and with grazer concentration. Grazing also affected the density of P. multiseries chains and average chain length which became -25% higher and -8% longer, respectively, than without grazers. These effects could either be caused by size-dependent grazing or by grazer-cue-induced effects on chain formation. A negative correlation between cellular DA content in P. multiseries and clearance and/or ingestion rates of Artemia nauplii indicate that DA might have a negative effect on the grazing of Artemia nauplii. Such interaction might result in a decrease in grazing pressure on toxic blooming species, like P. multiseries, and hence potentially a prolonged bloom. This indicates that the interaction between toxic diatoms and grazers may have implications on aquatic food web structure and the progression of Pseudo-nitzschia blooms.
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
- Pseudo-nitzschia, Artemia nauplii, Morphological defense, Domoic acid, Ingestion rate, Survival rate, DOMOIC ACID PRODUCTION, TEMORA-LONGICORNIS, TOXIN PRODUCTION, FOOD-WEB, MARINE, BACILLARIOPHYCEAE, PHYTOPLANKTON, PHOSPHATE, KRILL, INDUCTION