A new deep-sea eelpout of the genus Pyrolycus (Teleostei: Zoarcidae) associated with a hydrothermal seep on the Pacific margin of Costa Rica
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A new species of the zoarcid genus Pyrolycus Machida & Hashimoto, 2002, Pyrolycus jaco sp. nov., is described from a hydrothermal seep environment named Jacó Scar in the eastern Pacific of Costa Rica. Four specimens were collected in 2018 between 1746-1795 m among tubeworm colonies around the seep. The new species is differentiated from its two western Pacific congeners by having a shorter head, snout, jaw, and pectoral fins. It is further diagnosed by having three postorbital pores and two occipital pores. Molecular sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase I gene are provided and are the first for the genus. The character states indicating miniaturization in this species are discussed. This is the first vertebrate species known from this composite reducing ecosystem and is the fourth hydrothermally-associated zoarcid from the eastern Pacific.
|Status||Udgivet - 2023|
Specimens were observed during interdisciplinary research cruises to the Pacific margin of Costa Rica: R/V Atlantis with DSV Alvin AT15-44 (2009), AT37-13 (2017), AT42-03 (2018); R/V Falkor with ROV SuBastian FK190106 (2019). Specimen collection and field operations were performed under the following permits issued by CONAGEBIO (Comisión Nacional para la Gestión de la Biodiversidad), INCOPESCA (Instituto Costarricense de Pesca y Acuicultura), and SINAC (Sistema Nacional de Áreas de Conservación) under MINAE (Ministerio de Ambiente y Energía), Government of Costa Rica: INCOPESCA-CPI-003-12-2018, R-070-2018-OT-CONAGEBIO, SINAC-CUSBSE-PI-R-032-2018, SINAC-SE-CUS-PI-R-035-2017. DNAsequencing for this project was authorized by the Contract for the Grant of Prior Informed Consent between MINAE-SINAC-ACMC and Jorge Cortés Nuñez for the Basic Research Project: “FK190106—Cuantificación de los vínculos biológicos, químicos y físicos entre las comunidades quimiosintéticas con el mar profundo circundante.” The type specimens were collected during AT42-03 using a suction sampler or the Bushmaster Jr. device, a hydraulically operated net that envelops a cluster of vestimentiferan tubeworms to minimize the loss of associated fauna (Bergquist et al. 2002). Specimens were maintained in chilled seawater and photographed using a handheld camera (e.g. Nikon D70, Canon EOS M5). Tissue subsamples were preserved in 95% ethanol for genetic analysis. Specimens were fixed in 10% seawater formalin or 95% ethanol for at least 24 hours, rinsed with fresh water, and transferred to 50% ethanol for long-term archival. Some voucher specimens were frozen at -20 °C for several years prior to fluid preservation. Measurements were made with digital calipers to the nearest 0.1 mm. Methods and terminology follow Anderson (1994, 1995). Specimens were radiographed for meristics.
We thank Marina McCowin in the laboratory of Greg Rouse (SIO) for sequencing COI from the holotype. We also thank the captains and crew of R/V Atlantis and R/V Falkor; the pilots and technicians of HOV Alvin and ROV SuBastian; and the chief scientists and science parties of cruises AT15-44 (Lisa Levin), AT37-13 (Erik Cordes), AT42-03 (EC), and FK190106 (EC) for crucial assistance with specimen observation and collection. Field operations and genetic analyses were funded by U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) grants: OCE-0826254 (PIs Greg Rouse, Lisa Levin), OCE-0939557 (GR, LL), OCE-1634172 (GR, LL), and OCE-1635219 (EC); and the Schmidt Ocean Institute. CT data acquisition was supported by NSF grant MRI 1920204. Lastly, we thank Scripps Director Margaret Leinen and the Director’s Office for continued support of the Oceanographic Collections.
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